Amélie Fouqué, Mickael Jean, Pierre van de Weghe and Patrick Legembre Pages 283 - 296 ( 14 )
Background: Constitutive activation of the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway is observed in most, if not all, breast cancers. Accordingly, many PI3K and/or mTOR inhibitors have entered clinical trials, and completed studies should soon reveal the efficacy of these new drug families in the treatment of cancer patients.
Objective: We present the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and the structure and the anti-tumor efficiency of some mTOR inhibitors such as rapalogues and competitive inhibitors, which have entered clinical trials. We also discuss some of the clinical trial results associated with these molecules mainly focusing on studies performed on relapsing breast cancer patients - but not only.
Results: Most of the clinical trials with PI3K/mTOR inhibitors alone or in combination with chemotherapies were performed in heavily pre-treated patients and revealed non-negligible amounts of partial responses and long-term stable disease for these patients. Therefore, these compounds seem to prevent tumor growth and survival of cancer cells in Human, representing a new range of anti-tumor drugs that can be utilized not only as first-line treatments but as second- and third-line agents for patients who relapse.
Conclusion: Drugs inhibiting the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway may represent tailored anti-tumor agents, paving the way for their clinical application in different tumor types.
Breast cancer, clinical trial, mTOR, PI3K, therapy, triple-negative breast cancer.
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