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Pharmacological Inhibitors of NAD Biosynthesis as Potential An ticancer Agents

[ Vol. 12 , Issue. 3 ]

Author(s):

Stephanie Lucas, Claire Soave, Ghazal Nabil, Zainab Sabry Othman Ahmed, Guohua Chen, Hossny Awad El-Banna, Q. Ping Dou and Jian Wang   Pages 190 - 207 ( 18 )

Abstract:


Background: Alteration of cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, which underlies exciting opportunities to develop effective, anti-cancer therapeutics through inhibition of cancer metabolism. Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+), an essential coenzyme of energy metabolism and a signaling molecule linking cellular energy status to a spectrum of molecular regulation, has been shown to be in high demand in a variety of cancer cells. Depletion of NAD+ by inhibition of its key biosynthetic enzymes has become an attractive strategy to target cancer.

Objective and Method: The main objective of this article is to review the recent patents which develop and implicate the chemical inhibitors of the key NAD+ biosynthetic enzymes for cancer treatment. We first discuss the biological principles of NAD+ metabolism in normal and malignant cells, with a focus on the feasibility of selectively targeting cancer cells by pharmacological inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and indoleamine/tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenases (IDO/TDO), the rate-limiting salvage and de novo NAD+ biosynthetic enzymes, respectively. We then analyze a series of recent patents on development and optimization of chemical scaffolds for inhibiting NAMPT or IDO/TDO enzymes as potential anticancer drugs.

Conclusion and Results: We have reviewed 16 relevant patents published since 2015, and summarized the chemical properties, mechanisms of action and proposed applications of the patented compounds. Without a better understanding of the properties of these compounds, their utility for further optimization and clinical use is unknown. For the compounds that have been tested using cell and mouse models of cancer, results look promising and clinical trials are currently ongoing to see if these results translate to improved cancer treatments.

Keywords:

Cancer metabolism, IDO, NAD+, NAD+ biosynthesis, NAMPT, pharmacological inhibitor, TDO, Warburg effect.

Affiliation:

Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, 4100 John R Road, Detroit, MI 48201, Department of Pathology, Wayne State University, 540 E. Canfield Road, Detroit, MI 48201



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