Tabinda Urooj*, Bushra Wasim, Shamim Mushtaq, Ghulam Haider, Syed N.N. Shah, Rubina Ghani and Muhammad F.H. Qureshi Pages 59 - 69 ( 11 )
Background: Lungs are the second most common reported site of distant metastasis in Breast cancer after bone. Mostly the studies were conducted in cell lines and animal model. To date, there is no blood biomarker reported that could determine the breast cancer progression in terms of lung metastasis.
Objective: The aim of this study is to determine Nidogen-1 (NID1)’s mRNA and protein expressions in non-invasive blood samples of breast cancer, in early (II) and lung metastasis advanced stages (III & IV) of naive and treated groups. To determine the functional association of NID1, we employed an in silico analysis, STRING database version 11.
Methods: A total of n = 175 cases of breast cancer were recruited in our study. Real time quantitative PCR and ELISA were performed to analyze the mRNA and protein expressions of NID1 respectively. An in silico method is also used to assess NID1’s interactome. Some significant patents related to this topic were also studied and discussed in this research paper.
Results: The results show high levels of NID1’s mRNA in the naive group (Group A) as compared to treated group (Group B). Similar trend of increased NID1’s protein expressions was also observed among naive and treated groups, respectively. Our results also show the significant impact of treatment on NID1’s gene and protein expressions. In silico analysis has revealed the functional association of NID1 with its different interactome protein partners.
Conclusion: The increased expression of NID1 in early to advanced naive as compared to the treated groups with lung metastasis makes it a promising marker which has pro-metastatic role in breast cancer.
Basement membrane, blood biomarker, breast cancer, extracellular matrix, gene expression, lung metastasis, mRNA levels, Nidogen 1.
Anatomy Department, Ziauddin University, Clifton, Karachi 74700, Sindh, Anatomy Department, Ziauddin University, Clifton, Karachi 74700, Sindh, Biochemistry Department, Ziauddin University, Clifton, Karachi 74700, Sindh, Oncology Department, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi 75510, Anatomy Department, Ziauddin University, Clifton, Karachi 74700, Sindh, Biochemistry Department, Jinnah Medical and Dental College, Karachi 74800, Biochemistry Department, Ziauddin University, Clifton, Karachi 74700, Sindh